Poisoning by aflatoxins Aflatoxins are poisons produced by fungi of the genus Aspergillus. Mold developing on stored seeds, walnuts and hazelnuts nuts. The most favorable conditions for the accumulation of poisons — temperature from 1 8 °to 35 ° C and the presence of moisture. Poisoning occurs when birds are given substandard food. Aflatoxins impair the function of the liver, protein synthesis, cause protein and fat dystrophy, have a carcinogenic effect. The disease occurs in acute, subacute or chronic form, depending on the amount of poison in the feed. Signs of acute poisoning appear within 1-3 days after eating feed infected with fungi. The General condition of the sick birds are depressed, have no appetite, weakness. Treatment. The bird was washed the craw of 0.1—0.2% solution of potassium permanganate. After that give bitter or Glauber’s salt (0.5 g), decoction of flax seed and astringent — decoction of oak bark or charcoal.
Arsenic poisoning Arsenic is contained in pesticides, which is treated gardens and fields. Birds can be poisoned if you eat food that contains arsenic compounds. In most species of birds the first signs of poisoning are manifested through 4-9 hours after receipt of the poison in the body. They stopped to eat, thirsty, the state of their depressed, dilated pupils, weakness of muscles,there is pain from abdominal organs. Treatment. To prevent further absorption of arsenic compounds, craw washed with warm water with addition of magnesium oxide, dead-burned magnesia or baking soda (0,2—0,4% solutions). Then given an antidote for arsenic is a mixture of two solutions: 20 g of magnesium oxide in 300 ml of water and 100 g of iron oxide sulfate in the same amount of water. The mixture is prepared directly before use and give the bird one to several drops every 15 minutes For evacuation you use saline laxatives and mucous substances.
Lead poisoning If not properly stored hunting shot and sinkers for fishing, made of lead, they can accidentally swallow birds room. In addition, in the stomachs of birds sometimes toys, women’s ornaments, or clips for curtains, which can also contain lead. Possible poisoning, and if the birds peck at the paint after a recent renovation (in white lead, minium, other household paints contain lead) or eat feed contaminated with particles of metallic lead. Birds are very sensitive to the lead compounds. If poisoning is dramatically impaired oxidative-reduction processes in the organism, inhibited the synthesis of hemoglobin, damage of erythrocyte membrane, disrupts structure and function of nervous tissue, kidney, liver, blood vessel walls. The result is the destruction of red blood cells, decreases vascular tone and increases their permeability. This leads to edema of the brain, multiple hemorrhages, lesions of the peripheral nerves, the kidney damage. Birds experiencing depression, stop eating and become weak, resulting in can not sit on a perch. In addition, they are overcome with lust. Treatment. If you suspect a poisoning lead compounds craw was washed with 1 %-s ‘ solution of baking soda, then give a laxative: sodium sulphate or bitter salt with plenty of water. Effective — EDTA, or tetatsin-calcium. The Amazons, the fraction swallowed, injected 15 mg in 0.3 ml of a 5% aqueous solution of destreza. The drug can be administered intramuscularly and — 25— 45 mg (per 1 kg of body weight) in 0.3 ml of 50% aqueous solution of destreza. In addition, birds given vitamin K (the Amazon 1 mg), and vibramycin (7.5 mg) and S ml of a mixture of honey and water. Sick bird should be placed in an incubator with a temperature of 30 °C.
Poisoning zinc Poisoning in birds zinc occur due to overdose its salts, when added to feed, and when food is prepared and stored in a galvanized container. When the intake of high doses of zinc primarily affects the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines. After absorption zinc is accumulated in the bones, liver and other organs. This leads to the violation of redox processes in the body, resulting in disturbed functioning of vital organs. Signs of acute zinc poisoning is very similar to the symptoms of lead poisoning. In chronic poisoning the birds grow slowly, exhausted, they develop anemia. Treatment. Should be excluded from the diet of food in which zinc is more the norm, and give the preparations of iron and copper, or, what is safer food, containing these trace elements.
Nicotine poisoning Nicotine and other alkaloids (nikoteen, nornicotine, anabasine) found in tobacco, especially in its leaves, in cigarette smoke and some cigarettes. Cases of poisoning by nicotine of birds are not uncommon. It is particularly sensitive to small birds. If poisoning the bird is depressed, is weak. Can occur and paralysis of the Central nervous system: respiratory arrest, cessation of cardiac activity. Treatment. At the first signs of poisoning it is necessary to place the bird’s cage in a room with fresh air.
Poisoning salt Consumption by birds salt in large quantities leads to acute and chronic poisoning. Acute poisoning arise when they are given salt, before long absent in their diet or when it is given in pure form. Salt poisoning is possible even if it is not evenly mixed with feed. Operates salt on birds in different ways. Young individuals are more sensitive to it than older ones. Exhausted to die earlier and from smaller doses. The lack of water birds enhances the toxicity of salt. Long consumption of high doses of salt leads to chronic poisoning. If poisoning occurs a malfunction in the Central and peripheral nervous systems, dehydration of red blood cells and cells of vital organs. This causes short-time increase of metabolic processes, followed by prolonged inhibition. At high concentrations salt irritates the mucous membranes of the stomach and intestines, resulting in the development of gastroenteritis that is accompanied by bleeding. In severe cases, death occurs from asphyxia — suffocation. Signs of poisoning appear after 2 to 5 h after eating large quantities of salt. Birds observed excessive thirst, loss of appetite, nasal discharge, diarrhea. Feathers ushirosugata, the General condition is depressed, the coordination of movements is broken, the wings are lowered, the head tilts back, can be convulsions, the body temperature decreases. Before her death marked paralysis of the legs and wings. Treatment. First, you need to give the bird as much water as possible. If she can’t drink, water is injected in the craw through the probe. In the future, give the slimy broth of a linen seed.