Ringworm: the Disease allowed
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Ringworm is an infectious zooantroponoznyh diseases with characteristic skin lesions and its derivatives caused by pathogenic fungi-dermatophytes. Among animals the most common are:
dermatophytosis (Trichophytia) – infectious salesgrowth and humans, characterized by the appearance of the skin sharply limited, scaly areas with broken hairs at the base or the development of pronounced inflammation of the skin, exudate and the formation of a thick crust, microspores ((Microsporosis) is an infectious disease characterized by superficial inflammation of the skin and its derivatives,
in rare cases, ringworm (favus) – an infectious disease characterized by the formation of rounded patches covered by thick grayish-yellow crusts – scutului, gradually acquiring the shape of a saucer or plate with raised edges.
The microsporia and trichophytosis unite under one common name “ringworm”.
Mushrooms are filamentous, unbranched body and form a large number of spores that contributes to their wide distribution. They have considerable resistance to heat and disinfectants, long persist in the environment: litter, in soil, on wooden objects. Ehpizootologicheskaja data. The disease is registered everywhere, at any time of the year. Often ill with trichophytosis of cattle, horses, cats, dogs. Susceptible to microsporia horses, cats, dogs, fur animals, laboratory animals.
Carriers of pathogenic fungi are mice, rats and other rodents.
Infection occurs through contact with sick animals, as well as through care items, bedding.
A special danger to human are infected stray dogs and cats.
The disease most often affects young animals (under 1 year). Promotes infection of the violation of zoohygienic rules of maintenance and feeding of animals (crowding, disturbance of the normal macro environment, etc.).
The source of infection is a sick animal, transmitting the agent through direct or indirect (through the objects of care, litter, brushes, harnesses, collars, etc.) contact. Most infection occurs through broken skin (abrasions, scratches, etc.).
Pathogenesis. Pathogen, falling on the surface of the skin, releases toxins and keratolytic enzymes that cause local surface inflammation and loosening of the Horny layer of the skin. The pathogen then penetrates into the mouth of the hair follicle, in the hair of the neck, gradually destroying their structure, which leads to hair loss. In this case, the surface skin formed numerous scales and crusts of dried purulent exudate.
Microspores. The incubation period ranges from 22 to 47 days. Note superficial, deep (follicular) and erased (atypical) form of the disease. In animals with high resistance noted superficial or atypical form of the disease. In young and weakened animals – follicular. In the absence of proper treatment of surface shape can move in deep with a chronic disease.
The superficial form is characterized by precipitation and (or) breaking of hair affected with the formation in their place the local, sharply limited bald scaly patches of skin. The latter is usually dry, with no signs of exudation (serous or purulent effusion in the skin). The affected lesions can be single or appear on various parts of the body of the animal.
In follicular form affects deeper layers of the skin, the skin crusts of dried exudate, which is a breeding ground for the development of secondary microflora.
The latent form characterized by the presence of hairless areas or spots with thinning hair. The affected hair during the inspection are not detected, they are discovered only by the luminescence method. Expressed local inflammation are absent. These areas of skin often have the appearance of scuffs or abrasions, which complicates the clinical diagnosis.
Trichophytosis. The incubation period lasts from 5 to 30 days. More typical of the follicular form of the disease. In this case, the skin is formed sharply limited bald areas of skin. In places the defeat marked inflammatory exudate, which on drying turns into a thick peel. Due to deep lesions of the hair follicle on the skin of animals after healing remain usually hairless or depigmented spots.
Favuse (scab) in dogs and cats is relatively rare and characterized by lesions of the skin, hair, claws, and sometimes parenchymatous organs. The lesion is noted mostly on the scalp, ears, paws claws and near to other places. The causative agent of favus often penetrates deep into the dermis, subcutaneous tissue and into the bone tissue. Sometimes it is found even in the brain of the animal. The characteristic clinical manifestation of favus in animals is the formation of the skin scabbing, resembling a Cup with a hollow in the centre. The hair in areas of scab lesions fall out, but not break off, as with microsporia and trichophytosis.
The illness lasts from 3-9 weeks to 12 months.
Diagnosis is based on clinical and epizootic data, results of microscopy of pathological material, selection of culture of fungi on nutrient media.
For the differential diagnosis of microsporia method used fluorescent diagnosis using a wood’s lamp. In this case the affected areas giving a bright green, the emerald glow in ultraviolet rays (black hair doesn’t always provide the specified illumination even in severe cases).
Dermatophytosis differentiate from scabies, eczema, dermatitis a noncontagious etiology.
Treatment. Sick animals are isolated.
As a specific means of treatment of dogs and cats use a variety of mono – and polyvalent vaccine (Vacterl, Poliak-TM, Microderm, etc.) in therapeutic doses.
Wool in the site of the lesion and 1-2 cm around it cut out. Easily detachable crust is removed, and the affected skin by grabbing some of it healthy, groomed in one of the following drugs: spray Zoomicon, Clotrimazole, Nitrofungin, ASD – antiseptic-stimulator Dorogova, the 3rd faction (for external use), griseofulvin suspension, 5-10% salicylic ointment, iodoform ointment “Yam” (according to the instructions for their use).
Using drugs for systemic effects: griseofulvin, nizoral.
For quick recovery of hair follicle and hair coat of the animal the recommended daily intake of sulphur drugs and multivitamin with trace elements during the entire course of treatment.
Prevention. As for the specific prevention of use of the above-mentioned vaccines ((Werderm, Poliak-TM, Microderm, etc.), which is administered in prophylactic doses according to the instructions on their application.