Features of digestion in calves
Newborn ruminants have a proventriculus are not developed in morphological and functional terms (the size of immature and there is no scar microflora). In fact the calves at birth are monogastric animals, which are deficient: energy (for the maintenance of life, on live weight gain, etc.) and easily digestible protein.
In calves the milk bypassing the rumen, enters from the esophagus into the abomasum on “esophageal groove” this is one of the peculiarities of the digestive system of young ruminants. In the mucosa of the tongue, lips and pharynx receptors are located, irritation which forms the “esophageal groove”. The impetus for the formation of the “oesophageal trough” is the act of sucking. At infringement of technology of calves (violation of the temperature regime and watering of young plants from the buckets), the chute is not completely clamped, which threatens the ingress of milk into the rumen and the emergence of putrefactive and toxic processes that cause diarrhea and waste your calves.
Role of rumen in digestion is the digestion of roughage and the formation of microbial protein. Reduction of the scar in the first days of life are absent, for the first time are marked with 9-10 day of life, initially rare, then with age, their purity and length increases.
The abomasum of the newborn calf is fully morphologically developed, but the glands do not reach full development. Hydrochloric acid in the abomasum is in the bound state, the gastric juice in the first days of life contains few enzymes that come with colostrum (which is why it is important to observe the technology of feeding of colostrum). With age, rennet juice increases the acidity and amount of proteolytic enzymes.
The rearing of cattle
The right system of rearing with consideration of physiological characteristics allows to achieve normal growth, maximum productivity, the increase in terms of economic use of the animal.
In young from an early age should develop the ability to consume a large quantity and the most rational use of coarse, succulent and green fodders. Scheme of feeding the young variety: whole milk, SCME, fermented milk (kefir) but they are all directed at early schooling to bulky and concentrated feed, which allows early to reveal the genetic potential of the animal and increase the economic efficiency of rearing.
During the milking period there is a reorganization of the body, digestive system. There is an ability to absorb nutrients vegetable feed, enhanced protein, carbohydrate, mineral and water metabolism. Therefore, this period is characterized by a deficiency of easily digestible proteins and minerals, which must be compensated. Our company recommends the use of prestarter, starter feeds, and during the transitional period (60-80 days of removal from milk, the transition for grain grinding) – use of energy Lizunov-briquettes.
Depending on the purpose of rearing, the rational feeding, you can achieve average daily weight gain in the early period up to 1200 g per day. Task nutritionists –to make differentiation in cattle 6 months of age (rearing – containment of weights up to 750 g per day, the fattening – capacity gain of up to 1500-1800 gr.)
Rearing young animals is an important task for the realization of genetic potential. Studies have shown that the optimal milk production cows of Holstein breed had reached the age of 22-24 months at a minimum weight of 550 kg of live weight. Such results can only be achieved through rational feeding from an early age and early formation of cicatricial digestion in early to switch to dry type of feeding. For this you are offered the scheme of feeding of young cattle prestarter feed 62-25-126 produced by JSC “Capital Good”, this feed has a high exchange energy of 12.5 MJ, a large number of easily digestible protein, protected forms of vitamins and organic compounds of trace elements, which, in turn, provides:
the early development of the villi of the rumen
the correct formation of the skeleton
optimum development of muscle tissue
the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases
increasing the immune response of the body
the reduction in the duration of the milk period
the decrease of feed conversion.
All this is achieved with correctly balanced compositions of feed, which includes antidiarrheal plant components, estrogenalone grain, sugar for nutrition and development of the microflora of the rumen.
The scheme of work with pre-starter feed
Prestarter for calves fed free access, but do not forget that any new feed calves must be accustomed. That is, from the third day after watering the calf you need to take a little feed and forcibly put in mouth, repeat the procedure for 2 days, with the seventh day you must remember that Your calf consumes dry feed, need free access to clean water. When Your calf starts to consume 1-1. 5 kg per day (age of calf approximately 55-65 days) you can gradually replace prestarter for grain grinding for 4-5 days. It is necessary to give calves free access to wet briquettes UWMC TO 2-4 for calves up to 6 months. (to fill the deficit of energy and minerals.)
The experience in the Republic of Chuvashia and Vladimir region gives an indication of prestarter compound feed production of JSC “Capital Good”, about how high the stern, which is readily eaten by calves. Weight gain increased by 50%, live weight of calves at the age of 60-65 days amounted 92-105 kg, these animals were given a weight of 0.8–1.2 kg per day. The right start in calves results in maximum gain, early insemination of heifers, improvement of feed conversion (see table 1 ) .
The end of the experience showed us a bright economic basis of rational feeding of animals. Animals from the control group showed a high percentage of safety 96% in the post period, the calving, the milk production of the experimental group is higher by 10%.
Experience in the application of pre-starter feed
This experience was raised in the farms of the Tver region on the Aberdeen-Angus, the time of the December-March (time of calving). When using low-quality forages in the feeding of breeding stock decreases milk productivity of mares, respectively, to calves after birth, lack of breast milk. This leads to the decrease of weaning weight at 6 months at 140-160 kg (see table 2 ).
In the continuation of the experience of these animals fattened up to a year in the experimental group the average daily weight gain of calves was higher by 23% than the control.